World

Libya profile – Timeline

A chronology of key occasions:

seventh century BC – Phoenicians settle in Tripolitania in western Libya, which was hitherto populated by Berbers.

sixth century BC – Carthage conquers Tripolitania.

4th century BC – Greeks colonise Cyrenaica within the east of the nation, which they name Libya.

Ruins of Sabratha

The traditional metropolis of Sabratha prospered underneath the Romans. It’s considered one of quite a few historic websites to be seen in Libya

74 BC – Romans conquer Libya.

AD 643 – Arabs underneath Amr Ibn al-As conquer Libya and unfold Islam.

sixteenth century – Libya turns into a part of the Ottoman Empire, which joins the three provinces of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezzan into one regency in Tripoli.

Italian rule

1911-12 – Italy seizes Libya from the Ottomans. Omar al-Mukhtar begins 20-year insurgency towards Italian rule.

Nineteen Twenties – Libyan resistance grows as Senussi dynasty joins in alongside the Mukhtar marketing campaign.

1931 – Italy breaks resistance by mixture of main armed operations and focus camps for insurgent inhabitants. Al-Mukhtar is captured and executed.

1934 – Italy unites the provinces because the colony of Libya and steps up Italian migration as a part of an eventual plan for the incorporation of Libya right into a Better Italy.

British tanks in pursuit of German forces in LibyaBritish tanks in pursuit of German forces in Libya

Libya was a significant battleground throughout World Battle Two

1942 – Allies oust Italians from Libya, which is then divided between the French, who administer Fezzan, and the British, who management Cyrenaica and Tripolitania.

1951 – Libya turns into impartial underneath King Idris al-Sanusi.

1956 – Libya grants two American oil firms a concession of some 14 million acres.

1961 – King Idris opens a 104-mile pipeline, which hyperlinks necessary oil fields within the inside to the Mediterranean Sea and makes it attainable to export Libyan oil for the primary time.

The Gaddafi period

1969 – King Idris deposed in navy coup led by Col Muammar Gaddafi, who pursues a pan-Arab agenda by trying to type mergers with a number of Arab nations, and introduces state socialism by nationalising most financial exercise, together with the oil trade.

Col Muammar GaddafiCol Muammar Gaddafi

Colonel Gaddafi deposed the king in 1969 and dominated till he was killed in 2011

1970 – Libya orders the closure of a British airbase in Tobruk and the enormous US Wheelus air power base in Tripoli; property belonging to Italian settlers nationalised.

1971 – Nationwide referendum approves proposed Federation of Arab Republics (FAR) comprising Libya, Egypt and Syria. Nevertheless, the FAR by no means takes off.

1973 – Col Gaddafi declares a “cultural revolution”, which incorporates the formation of “individuals’s committees” in colleges, hospitals, universities, workplaces and administrative districts; Libyan forces occupy Aozou Strip in northern Chad.

1977 – Col Gaddafi declares a “individuals’s revolution”, altering the nation’s official identify from the Libyan Arab Republic to the Nice Socialist Individuals’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah and establishing “revolutionary committees” – heralding the beginning of institutionalised chaos, financial decline and common arbitrariness.

1980 – Libyan troops intervene in civil struggle in northern Chad.

Confrontation with the US

1981 – US shoots down two Libyan plane which challenged its warplanes over the Gulf of Sirte, claimed by Libya as its territorial water.

1984 – UK breaks off diplomatic relations with Libya after a British policewoman is shot lifeless outdoors the Libyan embassy in London whereas anti-Gaddafi protests have been happening.

Aftermath of US strikes on Tripoli in 1986Aftermath of US strikes on Tripoli in 1986

The US bombed Tripoli in retaliation for alleged Libyan assaults on American pursuits

1986 – US bombs Libyan navy services, residential areas of Tripoli and Benghazi, killing 101 individuals, and Gaddafi’s home, killing his adopted daughter. US says raids have been in response to alleged Libyan involvement in bombing of Berlin disco frequented by US navy personnel.

Lockerbie airplane bombing

1988 December – Lockerbie bombing – an airliner is blown up over the Scottish city of Lockerbie, allegedly by Libyan brokers.

1989 – Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania and Tunisia type the Arab Maghreb Union.

1992 – UN imposes sanctions on Libya in an effort to power it at hand over for trial two of its residents suspected of involvement within the Lockerbie bombing.

Wreckage of the airliner that came down over LockerbieWreckage of the airliner that came down over Lockerbie

Libya was accused of involvement within the downing of the 747 PanAm airliner that exploded and crashed over Lockerbie, Scotland

1994 – Libya returns the Aozou Strip to Chad.

1995 – Gaddafi expels some 30,000 Palestinians in protest on the Oslo accords between the Palestine Liberation Organisation and Israel.

1999 – Lockerbie suspects handed over for trial within the Netherlands underneath Scottish legislation; UN sanctions suspended; diplomatic relations with UK restored.

2000 September – Dozens of African immigrants are killed by Libyan mobs within the west of Libya who have been stated to be indignant on the giant variety of African labourers coming into the nation.

Lockerbie sentence

2001 31 January- Particular Scottish courtroom within the Netherlands finds one of many two Libyans accused of the Lockerbie bombing, Abdelbaset Ali Mohamed al-Megrahi, responsible and sentences him to life imprisonment. Megrahi’s co-accused, Al-Amin Khalifa Fahimah, is discovered not responsible and freed.

2001 Might – Libyan troops assist to quell a coup try towards President Ange-Felix Patasse of the Central African Republic.

2002 January – Libya and the US say they’ve held talks to fix relations after years of hostility over what the People termed Libya’s sponsorship of terrorism.

2002 14 March – The Libyan man discovered responsible of the Lockerbie bombing, Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed al-Megrahi, loses his enchantment towards the conviction and begins a life sentence of a minimum of 20 years.

Compensation

2003 January – Libya is elected chairman of the UN Human Rights Fee regardless of opposition from the US and human rights teams.

2003 August – Libya indicators a deal value $2.7bn to compensate households of the Lockerbie bombing victims. Libya takes accountability for the bombing in a letter to the UN Safety Council.

2003 September – UN Safety Council votes to elevate sanctions.

Libyan street sceneLibyan street scene

Col Gaddafi developed a cult of persona and his footage could possibly be seen all around the nation

2003 December – Libya says will abandon programmes to develop weapons of mass destruction.

2004 January – Libya agrees to compensate households of victims of 1989 bombing of French passenger plane over Sahara.

2004 March – British Prime Minister Tony Blair visits, the primary such go to since 1943.

Return to respectability

2004 Might – 5 Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian physician are sentenced to loss of life having been accused of intentionally infecting some 400 youngsters with HIV. They’re finally freed underneath a cope with the EU.

2004 August – Libya agrees to pay $35m to compensate victims of the bombing of a Berlin nightclub in 1986.

2005 January – Libya’s first public sale of oil and fuel exploration licences heralds the return of US power firms for the primary time in additional than 20 years.

2006 February – A minimum of 10 individuals are killed in clashes with police in Benghazi, a part of a wave of worldwide protests by Muslims who’re angered by a Danish newspaper’s cartoon depictions of the Prophet Muhammad.

2006 Might – The US says it’s restoring full diplomatic ties with Libya.

2008 January – Libya takes over one-month rotating presidency of the UN Safety Council in a step again to respectability after a long time as a pariah of the West.

2008 August – Libya and US signal settlement committing all sides to compensate all victims of bombing assaults on the opposite’s residents.

Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi apologises to Libya for harm inflicted by Italy in the course of the colonial period and indicators a 5 billion greenback funding deal by means of compensation.

2008 September – US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice makes historic go to – the highest-level US go to to Libya since 1953. Ms Rice says relations between the US and Libya have entered a “new part”.

2009 February – Gaddafi elected chairman of the African Union by leaders assembly in Ethiopia. Units out ambition of “United States of Africa” even embracing the Caribbean.

2009 June – Gaddafi pays first state go to to Italy, Libya’s former colonial ruler and now its important buying and selling companion.

Al-Megrahi launched

2009 August – Lockerbie bomber Abdelbaset Ali al-Megrahi is free of gaol in Scotland on compassionate grounds and returned to Libya. His launch and return to a hero’s welcome causes a storm of controversy.

2010 January – Russia agrees to promote Libya weapons in a deal value $1.8bn. The deal is assumed to incorporate fighter jets, tanks and air defence programs.

Rebels in LibyaRebels in Libya

Libyans rose up towards the rule of Col Gadaffi, and lots of took up arms

2010 June – UN refugee company UNHCR expelled.

BP confirms it’s about to start drilling off Libyan coast.

2010 October – European Union and Libya signal settlement designed to gradual unlawful migration.

Anti-Gaddafi rebellion

2011 February – Impressed by revolts in different Arab nations, particularly neighbouring Egypt and Tunisia, violent protests escape in Benghazi, unfold to different cities, resulting in escalating clashes between safety forces and anti-Gaddafi rebels.

2011 March – UN Safety Council authorises a no-fly zone over Libya and air strikes to guard civilians, over which NATO assumes command.

Libyan rebels initially seize territory however are then compelled again by better-armed pro-Gaddafi forces.

2011 July – The worldwide Contact Group on Libya formally recognises the principle opposition group, the Nationwide Transitional Council (NTC), because the professional authorities of Libya.

2011 August – Col Gaddafi goes into hiding after rebels swarm into his fortress compound in Tripoli.

2011 August-September – African Union joins 60 nations which have recognised the NTC as the brand new Libyan authority.

2011 20 October – Col Gaddafi is captured and killed as insurgent fighters take his hometown Sirte. Three days later, the NTC declares Libya to be formally “liberated” and pronounces plans to carry elections inside eight months.

2011 November – Saif al-Islam, the fugitive son of former Libyan chief Muammar Gaddafi, is captured, turning into the final key Gaddafi member of the family to be seized or killed.

Gadaffi's last hiding placeGadaffi's last hiding place

Col Gadaffi tried to cover in a drain however was captured and killed

2012 January-March – Clashes erupt between former insurgent forces in Benghazi in signal of discontent with the NTC. Benghazi-based NTC officers marketing campaign to re-establish autonomy for the area, additional rising rigidity with the NTC in Tripoli.

2012 August – Transitional authorities arms energy to the Common Nationwide Congress, which was elected in July.

Benghazi assault

2012 September – US ambassador and three different People are killed when Islamist militants, together with Ansar al-Sharia, storm the consulate in Benghazi.

US consulate in BenghaziUS consulate in Benghazi

The US consulate in Benghazi was attacked and the ambassador killed

2013 August – Petroleum Amenities Guard militia begins blockade of oil export terminals.

Civil struggle

2014 February – Protests erupt in response to the Common Nationwide Congress refusal to disband after mandate expires.

2014 April – Petroleum Amenities Guard militia lifts closure of two oil terminals.

2014 Might – “Libyan Nationwide Military” renegade common Khalifa Haftar launches navy assault together with airstrikes towards militant Islamist teams in Benghazi; tries to grab parliament constructing, accusing Prime Minister Ahmed Maiteg of being in thrall to Islamist teams.

2014 June – Prime Minister Maiteg resigns after supreme courtroom guidelines his appointment unlawful.

New parliament chosen in elections marred by a low turn-out attributed to safety fears and boycotts; Islamists endure heavy defeat. Preventing breaks out between forces loyal to outgoing GNC and new parliament.

2014 July – UN workers pull out, embassies shut, foreigners evacuated as safety scenario deteriorates. Tripoli worldwide airport is basically destroyed by preventing.

Ansar al-Sharia seizes management of most of Benghazi.

Islamic State intervenes

2014 October – UN Secretary-Common Ban Ki-moon visits to proceed UN-brokered talks between the brand new parliament and authorities based mostly in Tobruk and Islamist Libya Daybreak militias holding Tripoli. UN says 100,000s displaced by clashes.

Islamic State extremist militia seizes management of port of Derna in jap Libya.

2015 January – Libyan military and Tripoli-based militia alliance declare partial ceasefire after UN-sponsored talks in Geneva.

2015 February – Egyptian jets bomb Islamic State targets in Derna, a day after the group there launched a video displaying the beheading of 21 Egyptian Christians.

Libyan Military offensive to retake Derna in March fails to dislodge the group. IS establishes management over port-city of Sirte, midway alongside coast between Tripoli and Benghazi.

2015 July – A Tripoli courtroom sentences Gaddafi’s sons Saif al-Islam and eight different former officers to loss of life for crimes dedicated in the course of the 2011 rebellion towards his father. He’s later freed by an armed group.

2016 January – UN pronounces new, Tunisia-based interim authorities, however neither Tobruk nor Tripoli parliaments conform to recognise its authority.

Islamic State group assaults Ras Lanuf oil terminal, threatens to maneuver on to Brega and Tobruk.

Rise of Common Haftar

2016 March – New UN-backed Authorities of Nationwide Accord arrives in Tripoli by boat after opposing forces block airspace.

2016 April – UN workers return to Tripoli after absence of practically two years.

Libyan military leader Khalifa HaftarLibyan military leader Khalifa Haftar

Khalifa Haftar has featured prominently within the post-Gaddafi battle, and is de-facto chief of the east

2016 September – Libyan Nationwide Military of Khalifa Haftar seizes key oil export terminals within the east.

2016 December – Professional-government forces oust Islamic State militants from coastal city of Sirte, which that they had seized 18 months beforehand.

2017 July – Islamic State group ejected from Benghazi after three years of preventing.

2018 July – Khalifa Haftar claims that his forces are absolutely in charge of Derna, the final Islamist stronghold within the east and the one metropolis within the area hitherto outdoors his management.

2019 April – The Haftar Libyan Nationwide Military advances on Tripoli, sparking clashes with the forces of the internationally-recognised Authorities of Nationwide Accord.

2020 June – UN-backed authorities drives Haftar forces out of Tarhouna, their final stronghold within the west of the nation close to Tripoli.

2021 March – Abdul Hamid Dbeibeh takes over as prime minister of the UN-backed Authorities of Nationwide Accord in Tripoli.

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